Ministry of Education launches literacy campaign

[Ahmad al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images] The Iraqi government hopes to raise literacy among young people and adults.

[Ahmad al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images] The Iraqi government hopes to raise literacy among young people and adults.

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The Iraqi cabinet approved an illiteracy elimination bill Monday (February 8th) and referred it to parliament for ratification. In the meantime, the Ministry of Education is preparing a campaign to end illiteracy in Iraq.

The government's official spokesman, Ali al-Dabbagh, released a statement about the bill.

"The new legislation will open horizons for a social category that has been denied access to education," the statement said. "The law will also pave the way for dealing with illiteracy resulting from the circumstances of the current stage, as enshrined under the constitution, given that education is an essential element for the progress of society."

According to the statement, "The right to education is guaranteed by the state for its citizens as per the articles of Iraqi constitution and in implementation of its missions to eliminate illiteracy and get illiterate people to a level of civilization that would enable them to develop their lives culturally, socially, and economically, and also enable them to practice the rights and obligations of good citizenship."

The illiteracy elimination bill, which was also ratified by the Iraqi Presidential Council, covers all Iraqis aged 15 through 55 who do not know how to read or write.

According to al-Dabbagh, classes will be held in two stages for seven months each. The first "basic" stage will be followed by a second "complementary" stage, with a 15-day break in between. There will be verbal and written tests for the students at the end of each stage.

Once students have completed both stages, they will be awarded a certificate, allowing them complete their studies in schools beginning in the fifth grade.

To prepare for the launch of the program, the Ministry of Education formed a supreme body called the Illiteracy Elimination Authority (IEA), headed by the Minister of Education or his representative.

Each province will also have an executive body and illiteracy elimination council, which will in turn form illiteracy elimination sub-councils in towns, districts, and sub-districts.

"The new law aims at eliminating illiteracy and preventing a relapse in it by implementing the illiteracy elimination project and opening specialized centers, and holding training courses and forming committees for this purpose in direct coordination with provincial departments in Iraq," said Ministry of Education media spokesperson Waleed Hussain.

According to Hussain, the IEA will work with the representatives of government ministries and organizations to draw up syllabi, plan for financial appropriations, study days, holidays, and methods for teacher selection, and provide incentives for students to join the illiteracy elimination centers.

The IEA and other organizations will also conduct field studies to ensure the program is successful and that potential problems are eliminated.

Several non-governmental organizations as well as the Ministry of Higher Education and the Ministry of Finance are collaborating on the project.

Kholoud al-Taey, manager of al-Raad charity foundation in Kirkuk, said her foundation has opened 11 centers in the province where newly graduated teachers give lessons in reading and writing.

"There is movement in this field because of the large number of citizens who quit education and now want to complete it," said al-Taey.

Meanwhile, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research Abd Thiab al-Ajeeli met with representatives of UNESCO in Amman, Jordan on January 14th to discuss strategies for implementing the illiteracy elimination project in Iraq.

At the meeting, al-Ajeeli also discussed holding a scientific conference in Baghdad to examine the higher education strategy in Iraq, particularly ways to support and develop syllabi in a way that educates Iraqis according to the standards used by international universities.

PHOTO: [Ahmad al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images] The Iraqi government hopes to raise literacy among young people and adults.

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  • READER COMMENTS

    المختار محمد فليح داود المندلاوي

    2010-10-16

    In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the ever Merciful. I demand that the Ministry of Education open new schools for the elimination of illiteracy in Diyala, Baldroz County, because the male and female citizens there seriously want to learn, and there is a strong demand for illiteracy elimination centers. We, the mayors of the regions, assist the officials to ensure the success of the educational process, and we demand that the graduates of the institutes be appointed, according to the geographic distribution. Peace be upon you. Muhammad Faleh al-Mandalawi. Mayor of Dor Mandali, Baldroz County. Thanks.

  • عيسى قيس

    2010-5-5

    The illiteracy eradication program is not a novelty. The idea of eradicating illiteracy is an old one that was first recommended and promoted by our gracious Prophet Muhammad, Peace and Blessings of God be upon him. In one of the battles against the infidels, the Muslims captured a number of infidels. The gracious Prophet, Peace be upon him, ordered that each infidel in captivity teach reading and writing to ten Muslims in return for his freedom. The infidels, then, set about teaching those Muslims who did not know how to read and write, and the process proved a real success. We must pattern ourselves after this idea, especially since illiteracy prevails in Iraqi society, particularly in the rural areas.

  • رمضان ياسين

    2010-5-4

    Illiteracy is not a new phenomenon; it is rampant in the Arab countries, particularly the poor ones, and has been for a long time, because the students leave school to go to work and make money. In addition, there is a lack of interest of some parents, who force the girls in some countries to leave school early, because they believe that going to school is improper for a girl, in contrast to a boy. All these factors have increased the rates of illiteracy. As for the poor countries, this problem worsens their conditions, because education enables people to work and earn money easily, while illiterate people cannot work in any field, because they cannot read or write. They will only work in physical jobs. That is why the anti-illiteracy campaign was launched, and we invite all illiterate people, whether old or young, to participate in it, to learn and to enlighten their minds with knowledge. They should leave everything that prevents them from learning. Good luck.

  • بشرى رسول

    2010-4-29

    The eradication of illiteracy will have a significant impact on the elimination of ignorance and backwardness. This campaign plays an effective role in raising awareness among the people. We should encourage young and old people alike to learn to read and write. In fact, being able to read and write spares one many difficulties in life. Everyone should do his/her best to spread awareness of the importance of education, to enable Iraqis to be educated and cultivated. Illiteracy eradication campaigns have significantly helped to eliminate ignorance. The difficult living conditions are at the root of the ignorance spread in Iraq because of illiteracy. Indeed, some years ago, education was very expensive, because schools were not free. Only the children of the rich were able to enroll in national schools and could afford to pay its expenses, including books, paper, clothing and the like. The children of farmers were not able to have access to these schools, which caused many of them to be ignorant and backward. Then, the Ministry of Education embarked on the eradication of illiteracy by launching educational campaigns aimed at improving the quality of education and making it free, now that the overall conditions in the country have improved. Moreover, the state has launched educational campaigns meant to rid old people of ignorance. The state has done this in order to make the Iraqi people an educated and a cultivated one, and thus to prevent foreigners from exploiting their lands and resources and to make Iraqis the only beneficiaries of the resources of their country.

  • صالح

    2010-4-28

    Now, after launching this blessed campaign, we hope that all the students who have abandoned their studies will return to their classes in order to enlighten their lives with science and knowledge, and to ensure their future and the future of their children down the road. With science and knowledge, nations rise and build their blooming future. We also hope that all parents will pressure their children to make them return to their schools and to leave their jobs, which have prevented them from studying, and to think only about the studies and the bright future. Humans have no future without learning, and, as the aphorism says, “knowledge is power.” Moreover, we would like to see the illiterate adults attend literacy education schools, to learn how to read, write, manage their day-to-day matters, and take advantage of this campaign. We hope the Ministry of Education will continuously launch more campaigns like this one, in order to build an educated and wise generation.

  • ابو مهيمن

    2010-4-28

    The Ministry of Education has launched a literacy campaign targeting all age groups in Iraq and aiming at the eradication of illiteracy, which is rampant throughout the country and which has intensified because of the poor living conditions of the Iraqi people. These conditions have forced many students to leave school and take up menial jobs to earn a living and to provide for their parents, brothers and sisters. The Ministry of Education, however, has turned a blind eye to the difficult economic conditions of the families which force their children, particularly those who have lost their parents in terrorist attacks, to work.

  • جلال وليد

    2010-4-28

    The people have forced the state to order the Ministry of Education to organize teaching campaigns directed at adults, with the aim of fighting illiteracy and the disease of ignorance and backwardness, which have plagued that nation. These campaigns have educated many people, and this has contributed to the advancement of the state, after eliminating backwardness. We call on the Ministry of Education to organize more such campaigns.

  • صباح

    2010-3-28

    The Iraqi woman is the source of strength for the Iraqi man, because she is the mother who taught him strength and patience.

  • حمزة جاسم

    2010-3-25

    In my opinion, women give men the space to work and do not compete with men in the workplace.

  • عبدالكريم

    2010-3-25

    There is no doubt that clerics play an important role in combating the increasing illiteracy rates in Iraq. Such high rates are due to the regressive conditions and poor living standards that the Iraqi people are going through as a result of wars. At this point, clerics have to play a role in raising awareness about education; they should teach people that scientists would help build a conscious, developed country, and that ignorant people would take the country backward. Moreover, clerics can encourage humanitarian organizations to donate to build literacy classes. Thus, high illiteracy rates in Iraq can be combated.

  • ابو سارة

    2010-3-25

    In my opinion, the high rate of illiteracy is due to the lack of awareness in Iraq . The fact that people do not take an interest in this aspect of life was an important factor that spread illiteracy in Iraq, especially among women. Another reason is sticking to old traditions that restrict the freedom of the people, and especially women; such traditions still control the minds of some Iraqis. Illiterate women would bring up children who have no interest in education.

  • سعدية الدوري

    2010-3-25

    Iraq is a cultured country; illiteracy will end one day.

  • كنعان زبير

    2010-3-19

    It is well known that religious scholars are seen as righteous, knowledgeable and familiar with worldly affairs. We receive their advice and sermons with tolerance. They are proud to see their advice applied. This is the reality of the Iraqi people. Religious scholars should pay attention to this topic. They should understand that Iraq will lose if illiteracy continues. They should advise families and parents in particular not to let their children remain illiterate. Even if a parent did not have the chance to learn, he can make up for that in his children, because they are still young and still have long time ahead of them. Parents should teach them about the importance of school, and [talk with them about] what they are going to be in the future, whether religious scholars, administrators, engineers or any other specialization. Meanwhile, religious scholars, who have an influence on the government in Iraq, should raise the awareness of government officials about the need to take care of illiterates, and provide attractions for students, so that they will not have to leave school. The government should do its part as well. Thus, we will have a campaign to eradicate and fight illiteracy in Iraq by all parties.

  • عزيز ويسى

    2010-3-19

    The high level of illiteracy among Iraqi women has come to be a serious problem, because there are no organizations which take sufficient care of women. If there are any, they are not enough to meet the expected ambitions, especially under the new situation and the developments in the conditions of women in other world countries. As for Iraq, women are still suffering, especially under the hard conditions that Iraq is experiencing now. These hard conditions have negatively affected the minds of Iraqi women, and this has affected their ability to complete their education, or their ability to learn and read, in the case of illiterate women. The problem is that there are no private schools or classes for older people, or those whose ages have exceeded the admissible age to enter school. This illiteracy, which is currently rampant among Iraqi women, will change the conditions of Iraq significantly towards a darker, negative, unknown future. On the other hand, if right procedures are taken, and more attention is paid to illiterate women, matters will change greatly [and will turn] towards a remarkably better and brighter future for Iraq in this regard. Iraqi women will then be able to participate actively in all fields and conferences. They will be able to represent their country in all fields and in all countries.

  • خليل فكري

    2010-3-18

    Men of religion play a vital role wherever they are. In fact, they are responsible for educating and guiding people to the right path that is favored by God and that enables its followers to be good, morally and religiously. Men of religion are able to make people aware of the need to learn and become educated, in order to enjoy a life built on sound scientific bases, and also to create a modern and cultivated society whose members are able to understand and perceive the changes in life and politics. Men of religion share this responsibility with the government and the family, who must in turn play their role in educating children and all individuals on the necessity to learn and get educated. It is through knowledge that we can establish a society free from problems and crimes. It is knowledge that enables humans to progress.

  • توفيق سمير

    2010-3-18

    We suffer from illiteracy. There are many different reasons for the spread of illiteracy in Iraq. These include the people’s lack of understanding of the importance of education. For this reason, there are many Iraqis who do not know to read and write, which is really unfortunate. The rate of illiteracy is high, mainly in rural parts of the country due to the customs and traditions prevalent there, which restrict the freedom of the individual, particularly the Iraqi woman. That is why we notice that the number of illiterate women is greater than that of illiterate men. The competent authorities have to investigate the matter and raise people’s awareness, particularly in rural parts of Iraq, to the importance of education and the importance of giving full rights to the Iraqi woman, given that she is a very important and indispensable component of society. The Iraqi woman is extremely oppressed and deprived of many basic needs, the most important of which is education. We must eradicate illiteracy and develop and improve our institutions’ ability to raise awareness among people about the importance of this issue.

  • احمدي كريم

    2010-3-18

    The Ministry of Education must take an interest in literacy campaigns.

  • جابر المحسن

    2010-3-18

    It is unfortunate that there are large numbers of illiterate children in Iraq. It is also regrettable that large numbers of children are neglected by their families. Sadly, the Iraqi child has been considerably neglected. He is deprived of all the basic needs that he ought to enjoy as a child, and that are necessary for teaching and educating him. Children in Iraq begin to work at an early age to earn a living, and thus leave behind their lost childhood and abandon their little dreams that consist in finding the time and place to enjoy their childhood. This is due to the violence that has affected all aspects of life in Iraq. The children are Iraq’s future leaders. We must be keen to enlighten and educate them, and give them the opportunity to fully enjoy their childhood. In fact, this is the responsibility of the family and the government equally. The family needs to guide, educate and motivate the child. As for the government, it needs to speed up the construction of new educational institutions, improve the old ones and upgrade the quality of education. It also needs to observe and monitor the performance of the family and the needs of the child.

  • hashim

    2010-3-12

    You are absolutely right. Exploiting children for begging in Iraq has become a new fad, and we now see a child with every beggar. You may also find some blind beggars led children in the streets or in locations near traffic lights, to tug on the heartstring of people in the street and to guarantee that they will give them charity. However, such a beggar has forgotten that he has deprived the child who accompanies him of all his rights, including the right to go to school and to build his future. Of course, we can only imagine the future and the fate of these poor children. He has also forgotten that there is a difference between himself and the child whom he takes to the streets to work with him in the profession of begging, which has become rampant in Iraq. He has forgotten that he himself is an adult and can endure cold and hot weather. He does not think of the child and the possibility that various diseases may attack him, caused by extreme cold, or by the burning sun beating down on him. What is the justification for this cruelty against the innocent child, who does not realize the danger of what he is currently doing or its impact on his future? Such a child will most likely be deviant. Hence, the government must end this phenomenon and prevent those beggars from exploiting the children, whether they are their own children or whether they are just hired. The government should make sure that those children are enrolled in school, to save them before it is too late, and before the child becomes a professional beggar. Those innocent children must be saved and protected from this injustice.

  • احمد رشاد

    2010-3-12

    There are many ways to end the phenomenon of children skipping school, which has become rampant in many schools. Some children avoid going to school, while others do not like it at all. Of course, there are causes behind this phenomenon, including the lack of entertainment in school and the absence of those who would encourage the child to go to school every day. In addition, our schools in Iraq have no extracurricular activities in the schools, particularly since sports and artistic activities have disappeared completely from Iraq. Therefore, the student has become bored with school and its unappealing routine. First of all, the school should organize school activities regularly, to provide the student with an incentive to come to school to study and to enjoy himself, especially since the children do not have any means of entertainment outside of school, due to the difficult living conditions. The teachers in the school should act as friends to the students, rather than as their enemies. In this way, they will make the student feel that they are close to him and that they love him. The teacher should remove the fear of the student. Likewise, the home and the family can play a great role in this regard, by following up with their child and encouraging him to go to school regularly, as well as asking for the school’s absentee records. There should be regular meetings between the school administration and the families of the students, to facilitate contact between the two parties and to stop this phenomenon. Then the student will have no chance to children skipping school, because he knows that his family will discover it. If the student feels that his family is keeping an eye on him, and if we plant love for school in him, this problem will not continue.

  • عبد القادر الدباس

    2010-3-10

    There must be a solution to the problem of illiterate children and their numbers, which increase every day, especially the number of children between the ages of 10 and 17 years. After the age of 17, the child will be an adolescent and young man, and these are the most dangerous stages in a person’s life. So, how will the country make use of such illiterate, ignorant, and uneducated youth? The government must work toward solving this problem, especially for children between the ages of 10 and 17, to protect them from falling through the cracks. Those children should enroll in schools to learn correctly and perfectly, to grow up as educated youth. In this way, they will be beneficial to the public authorities and will serve Iraq. Those children should be provided with specialized teachers who will instill a love for school and study in them, because the period during which they leave school makes them hate it and creates a psychological barrier between the child and the school. Therefore, the illiterate person should be taught by a specialized, qualified and experienced teacher, who can deal with him and inspire him to love school and study again. This task will be very difficult at the beginning, because most of them already work in many sectors and it will not be easy to persuade them to leave work and go back to school, particularly under the difficult circumstances that Iraqi families are facing.

  • هادي الدراجي

    2010-3-9

    Brothers, the solution is easy. Just provide employment opportunities for adults (fathers and mothers), so that they can meet their needs and will not send their children to work. We have a high percentage of widows, due to the stupid wars of Saddam and the terrorism that Iraq has witnessed. How can a woman feed her children? Sometimes a woman finds herself obliged to send her son to work, and this means that he will leave school. Again, I reiterate that the solution is easy; just provide employment opportunities for adults; and if they are unable to work for whatever reason, the government must provide monthly pensions for widows. If the child continues to work even though his father or mother gets a pension, then this is a violation of the law, and the father or the mother should be punished, and not the child.

  • محمد باشي

    2010-3-9

    We have to provide the opportunity to all those who have missed the opportunity to study, to go back to school. Equally important, there must be special schools to eradicate illiteracy among the Iraqis. It is unreasonable to have an 18-year-old man and a 10-year-old child in the same class. There must also be some flexibility in working hours. Everyone knows that someone who has missed the opportunity to study in school, and is 30 years old now, for example, may have a family. Thus he works in the morning. There must also be schools that stay open late, to accommodate those illiterate persons who have business commitments. Using knowledge, we can rebuild the Iraqi society. There can be no rebuilding without the dissemination of knowledge among the Iraqis, young and old alike. I hope that the Ministry of Education develops suitable pedagogical methods for those who have missed the opportunity to learn at an early age. It is unreasonable that a young man, aged 23, is learning how to read and write alongside six-year-old children.

  • عباس المياحي

    2010-3-8

    Certainly, every family in Iraq is worried about their children. However, this great vigilance makes each child think that “forbidden fruit is sweet,” as families do not make their children aware of the dangers of these issues. In fact, many families are ashamed of speaking with their sons and daughters about some taboo issues, without some guidance or help. Thus, there are some young people who hate this kind of interference and the tough upbringing, because they are unaware of the reasons why their parents educate them in a certain manner. Hence the role of the mother or the father to discuss these issues with their children, to teach them the matters of life and make them gradually aware of them. As children grow older, parents should befriend them in order to reach their minds, because bringing up children in a tough manner in some cases may have bad repercussions on the children when they become adolescents. It would be a major turning point in their life, because they were not well brought up, guided and sensitized. Instead, they met with beating, punishment and other things, which have bad repercussions on the children’s future. Thus, sensitizing children is much better than the principle of beating and punishing them.

  • رشيد المندلاوي

    2010-2-28

    It is obvious that the concept of illiteracy is a term used to refer to a lack of knowledge, or ignorance of certain knowledge, a subject or a skill. The principle of illiteracy eradication takes different forms. The illiteracy eradication program was applied in Iraq earlier in the seventies and continued to teach the uneducated class in the country at all ages; it even included encouraging the elderly to learn about science, especially since our religion recommends science and learning. Since education is compulsory and free in Iraq, and is still available to all people, without exception, the majority of the citizens are educated and have a minimum of knowledge in terms of reading and writing. However, nowadays, education is not limited to reading or writing, but it has become necessary for everyone to know even a little bit about computers, how to use them, how to do data processing and how to search the Internet. So, if we implement the literacy program in Iraq now, it should take a new form which is associated with eradicating computer illiteracy, not for children and young people, but for the elderly or middle-aged, because the majority of children and young people know how to use computers and are familiar with the Internet, because computer science is taught in all the schools and educational institutions. And most people, as in other countries, have computers at home; but the problem is with the elderly, the middle-aged or young people who have not seized the opportunity to learn. Thus, they must be given the opportunity by taking computer classes, software lessons to learn and get the opportunity like everyone else to help them find better jobs, especially at this time, when every job applicant needs to be familiar with the use of computers in order to get a good job.

  • hani samak

    2010-2-25

    Illiteracy is a dangerous epidemic that plagues our country and destroys it bit by bit. If illiteracy becomes rampant in a country, who will lead it in the future, and what will be the fate of the children of those illiterate people? What do you expect from a child whose parents are illiterate and jobless because they are illiterate? When such children grow old, the parents will make them quit school and go to work. This way, we will have a generation of illiterate citizens whom we consider the future of Iraq. You can imagine what will happen to Iraq in such a case. Illiteracy is as dangerous as terrorism, and this problem must be handled as soon as possible by opening schools and institutes to teach and enlighten the illiterate and to prepare them to assume their role in life. Iraq today has many illiterate Iraqi men, women and youth, in contrast to the past when this problem was confined to the elders. Of course, this confirms what I have said about the negative influence of illiterate parents upon their children. Hence, we have to solve the problem of illiteracy in Iraq from the roots; I mean educating illiterate parents in order to get an educated generation that can lead Iraq.

  • هبة البغدادي

    2010-2-18

    We must all stand against child labor because it is one of the causes of the spread of illiteracy. No one can exploit children in this wrong way. Children who are not aware of what they are doing today may feel happy about leaving school. However, when they reach the age at which they start to mix with people, they realize the difference between an educated person and an ignorant, illiterate one. So you should not exclude a child from school; if you do, you are going to do him a disservice for the rest of his life. And throughout his life, he will be the victim of this exploitation. So why exclude children from school for any reason, rather than endearing it to them, making them love it and be committed to it? And there is actually no reason for anyone to think of excluding his children from school, especially since Iraq is the only country where education is free and subsidized by the government. Then, the student has only to attend school regularly and prepare his homework. He doesn’t have to pay any amount of money whatsoever, given that education is free. And this is aimed at encouraging students to be committed to regular attendance and not leave school and turn to illiteracy, which destroys the person's or the child’s life, given the fact that these children are going to be Iraq's future leaders and decision-makers. No one indeed wants the illiteracy rate in Iraq to be higher in the future, rather than coming up with a remedy for it instead, and no one wants Iraq to be led by the illiterate in the future. The child is our responsibility, and educating him is our duty, because he is not aware of the importance of education, as he**comment truncated due to length

  • ابو شاكر العاني

    2010-2-18

    As for men of faith, they have many positive responsibilities towards the well being of the Nation, to ensure the progress of Iraq in all areas, including the fight against illiteracy. As for intellectuals and scholars, who are as knowledgeable as teachers and more, they have a role in educating people and parents, through the sermons they deliver in the mosques on Fridays. On the one hand, they have to raise parents’ awareness of the importance of education, and of the need to supervise their children and encourage them to study, and not let them leave school for any reason whatsoever. On the other hand, they can open schools or educational classes in mosques during their spare time, to teach those who have missed school. Thus, men of faith can take some action; they can start up classes with volunteer teachers, or be teachers themselves, as they have enough experience to deal with illiteracy, thanks to their extensive knowledge. Besides, they can attract illiterate people to join classes in mosques to eradicate illiteracy and to combat this phenomenon. Also, such an experience will have a great response in tapping the resources of the illiterate in a good way, and reintegrating them into starting a new life, armed with science and knowledge. Therefore, the responsibilities of Men of Faith are not restricted only to religion, but they are also entrusted with doing good deeds in support of the country they belong to. As a matter of fact, establishing theses classes and giving advice to people through their sermons to fight against illiteracy will have fruitful results and will eradicate the illiteracy of a large number of illiterate people in Iraq. And here is the role of the true Man of Faith, who loves and who is loyal to his country, and**comment truncated due to length

  • سلمان ارشد

    2010-2-18

    Iraq’s difficult circumstances over the past three decades contributed greatly to negligence of women’s education. The former governments with their arrogance, unjustified wars, and the destructive economic sanctions that were imposed on Iraq because of their wrong policies towards the neighboring countries, played a key role in women’s lack of interest in education and the high rates of early marriage among women. It was hard for the paterfamilias to provide for their families, including their sons and daughters, for a long period. Therefore, as soon as the girl became an adult, her father would give her in marriage at an early age, in order to transfer the responsibility of supporting her to her husband. Likewise, the husband, who lived under the same conditions, was obliged to work hard to be able to make a living and to support his wife. Hence, he needed special care when he returned home, and this left no chance for women at that time to go to schools or to have jobs. The majority of women abandoned studies because of the difficult living conditions, and became housewives. Many women did not even go to school. The result was that the ratio of illiteracy among women is twice as high as that of men. Moreover, the state did not provide schools or institutes for those who exceeded the legal school age, and there was no plan to fight illiteracy. Today, women are still suffering because the state has not built any schools or organized any campaigns to help and encourage women to return to school. The state also has not established any special agency to work towards solving this problem.

  • صادق الركابي

    2010-2-18

    Iraq’s difficult circumstances over the past three decades contributed greatly to negligence of women’s education. The former governments with their arrogance, unjustified wars, and the destructive economic sanctions that were imposed on Iraq because of their wrong policies towards the neighboring countries, played a key role in women’s lack of interest in education and the high rates of early marriage among women. It was hard for the paterfamilias to provide for their families, including their sons and daughters, for a long period. Therefore, as soon as the girl became an adult, her father would give her in marriage at an early age, in order to transfer the responsibility of supporting her to her husband. Likewise, the husband, who lived under the same conditions, was obliged to work hard to be able to make a living and to support his wife. Hence, he needed special care when he returned home, and this left no chance for women at that time to go to schools or to have jobs. The majority of women abandoned studies because of the difficult living conditions, and became housewives. Many women did not even go to school. The result was that the ratio of illiteracy among women is twice as high as that of men. Moreover, the state did not provide schools or institutes for those who exceeded the legal school age, and there was no plan to fight illiteracy. Today, women are still suffering because the state has not built any schools or organized any campaigns to help and encourage women to return to school. The state also has not established any special agency to work towards solving this problem.

  • هديل الجنابي

    2010-2-14

    May God keep you, we need a comprehensive campaign to eradicate illiteracy.